This paper expounds the functions of road lighting and the classification of the road lighting source, and discusses the lighting quality and the lighting mode in the design of road lighting according to the actual situation of our country. At the same time, the measured parameters are listed.
Key words: light source; lighting quality;
The definition of road lighting covers a wide range of people and vehicles are closely related, but also the quality and quantity of road lighting requirements. And for urban road lighting, landscaping and image from the city, but also from the aesthetic and urban
Three dimensional space, such as planning a number of angles, on the road lighting coordination, elegance, embellishment, light and other high quality requirements. Modern road lighting has been closely related to people's production, life and the appearance of the city
Able to beautify, foil, decoration, embellishment functions in one. A city's road lighting is the image of the city and the embodiment of the overall economic strength, but also the people living in the city's culture and style of the symbol, but also
A symbol of national lighting technology, manufacturing technology and cultural quality. If there is no light, it is equal to the loss of human eyes, and there is no culture there is no human civilization, so artificial lighting is the technology, art and culture of the knot
Fit is an important part of human civilization.
2, road lighting light source
The light source of road lighting should be determined according to the efficiency of the light source, the luminous flux, the life, the light color, the difficulty of controlling the light distribution and the condition of the road. In our country, the light source suitable for road lighting at present is high pressure sodium lamp, high pressure mercury lamp and low pressure sodium lamp. The following is a brief introduction to the characteristics of three kinds of light sources.
2.1, high pressure fluorescent mercury lamp
High pressure fluorescent mercury lamp is a visible light obtained by high pressure of mercury discharge. Because of the use of rare earth phosphors, not only the color rendering has been further changed, but also the efficiency of the lamp has been greatly improved. high
The pressure of the fluorescent lamp life, depending on the pipe wall and the light attenuation and blackening due to elevated electrode loss make starting voltage, and light emitting design and points out the number, current waveform tube etc.. Its life can reach
12000h, is one of the high reliability of road lighting.
2.2, high pressure sodium lamp
The characteristics of high pressure sodium lamp is high efficiency, radiation depending on the sense of efficiency (K) and visible radiation efficiency (ETA E) are relatively high. The light color of the sodium lamp is similar to that of the incandescent lamp. Because of using sodium oxide and aluminum, mercury lamp has the characteristics of small decline compared, its life can usually reach 12000h.
2.3, low pressure sodium lamp
Low pressure sodium lamp is the light of the wavelength of 5.89mm yellow light as the main body, compared with other light sources, higher luminous efficiency. But because of the light is monochromatic light, so it was a very low color, can make people clearly see the color of small objects, it is difficult to form the screen even in the smoke, the X-ray performance is very good, is an excellent source for road lighting.
In the construction of urban road lighting engineering, lighting effect and economic development are always contradictory. In order to reduce the operating costs of lighting engineering, energy conservation, the use of energy-saving lamps and energy-saving operation mode is the best way to save money. At the same time, the use of energy-saving measures, must consider various factors, such as depreciation, transportation and other social problems.
With the development of city construction, more and more people pay attention to the problem of light pollution. The so-called light pollution, is not reasonable light on the people and the environment. Of light pollution
The research on the condition, the form of expression and the control method is a powerful technical support for the rational construction of lighting engineering.
3, road lighting design
For the modern civilized city, wide roads, bright lights, green grass, beautiful flowers and fresh air is indispensable hardware, colors, each night lights, is the modern urban civilization
The symbol of progress and economic development. Therefore, the road lighting and road construction should be carried out simultaneously, in the planning and design must also have a certain degree of scientific and forward-looking, to achieve a high starting point, to adapt to the requirements of the development of cosco. Specific in lighting design
Plan, be based on the width of the road and green belt, with single or double row and single and double lighting, with certain height, color, shape, light pole lamp and the coordination of the surrounding environment, road lighting more strong
View, bright, truly become the highlight of the city and tourist attractions.
Lighting construction and urban road surrounding environment to coordinate. As we all know, a modern city, is a comprehensive reflection of the construction of various types of individual, is a specific reflection of the city's economic strength, management level and cultural connotations. As light
Decoration construction, but also inseparable from the surrounding environment and the harmonization of unity. If you do not coordinate, disharmony, even if the lighting itself is beautiful, in the chaotic environment can not show the beauty, but also lose its due effect.
Therefore, the author believes that to strengthen the urban lighting design, the need to take into account the composition of a number of factors of the urban environment, the city roads, street buildings and other public (interest) facilities unified planning, unified design. Because only the whole
The United States will have individual beauty, the whole is not beautiful, the individual is not beautiful. Planning and design of lighting environment should highlight the characteristics of the city. Every city has a positioning, or fashion, rich in modern consciousness; or simple and elegant, rich
With historical and cultural, or exotic scenery, rich ethnic customs, etc.. According to the location of the city to determine the location of the light, the formation of the overall planning, which is the premise of urban lighting environment planning and design.
The main purpose of road lighting is to make all kinds of motor vehicle drivers can recognize various situations on the road when driving at night (obstacles on the road, pedestrians, vehicles and other conditions), to ensure traffic safety. At the same time, it also provides lighting for pedestrians.
The main factors determining the quality of road lighting are the following four points:
(1) average illuminance;
(2) uniformity of luminance distribution;
(3) the degree of glare of the luminaire;
(4) induced index of street lamp arrangement.
With the increasing awareness of the lighting environment, people's requirements for road lighting are also increasing, in addition to the above mentioned functions, but also requires it to beautify the urban environment. Due to the strengthening of urban decoration concept, the road
Lighting has evolved to the road lighting system, requiring lamp poles, lamps, light sources with a variety of artistic features, the use of light or light street trees decorated with stars. Some commercial streets with equidistant arched light
All of these facilities not only meet the lighting requirements, but also render the environment and beautify the city.
Road lighting design is to ensure the quality of lighting in the premise, combined with the form of the road and urban beautification and planning to carry out design work. The quality of road lighting is mainly determined by the average brightness of road surface and the evenness of road surface brightness,
Glare, induced by four factors to determine. The average brightness of the road is the most important factor influencing the ability to see the obstacles, because the road lighting is to illuminate the road to see all the wrecker to the principle of the contour.
In the actual engineering acceptance measurement, the measurement of the average illuminance ratio is more easy to measure the average brightness of the road surface, the average brightness of Lr can be calculated by the average illuminance:
Lr = Er/q = (phi * N * UF * K) /q * A
In the formula, Lr - Road average brightness (cd/m2);
Er - average illuminance (LX);
The flux of a single light source (LM);
N - the number of light sources;
UF luminous flux utilization coefficient;
K - lamp maintenance factor;
A - illumination area (M2);
Q - average illuminance accounting coefficient, the value of 15 for asphalt pavement, concrete pavement value of 10
Glare refers to the presence of a very high brightness or a strong contrast, resulting in a visual field in the field of vision and the sense of discomfort. In design of road lighting, glare control index is generally G less than 7, that is not reduced to
See degree and do not damage comfort principle. Induction refers to the proper arrangement of lighting along the road, in the configuration of lamps, in addition to fully consider the brightness distribution of the road, but also through the perspective to check whether the induction is correct.
Technical index of road lighting quality according to the "standard" city road lighting design CJJ45 91, the slow lane road general average illuminance is 5 ~ 10lx, 15 ~ 25lx is appropriate to the fast lane, the city can be combined appropriately raise the level of the local economy and the actual needs.
Pole height and spacing should be designed according to different regions. The width of the road surface 15m can be taken as a single side cloth, more than 15m should adopt the bilateral symmetrical cloth lamp, the distance of the rod is 35m. For urban interchange, stations, docks, airports, squares and other large venues, should consider the high rod lighting, the spacing and height ratio of 4: 1 ~ 3: 1 is appropriate.
In recent years, with the continuous development of city lighting, especially increased lighting construction, many city one-sided light, for light, uncontrolled use of large floodlights and color light, glare problem is increasingly serious, cause
Environmental pollution The majority of designers in the design, according to the norms, should be in line with the principle of moderate increase, with large floodlights and colored lights, creating a bright, pleasant, elegant, beautiful and full of personality for our city
There are many ways of road lighting, combined with the development of China's urban roads and the actual situation of our country, which is suitable for road lighting and lighting. It is characterized in that
The lighting section is required to be provided with a lamp post in a plurality of ways, and the lighting device can be arranged according to the linear change of the road, and the utility model has the advantages of good induction, and can play the role of decoration, decoration and beautification of the city. Light and light
The relationship between the road profiles is shown in the figure.
As can be seen from the figure, the increase of Hf can reduce glare, increase the comfort of the entire lighting, brightness distribution is large and wide, even if the number of parts to reduce the number of lighting, but also get the same brightness uniformity. General design Hf
Take 10 ~ 15m is more suitable. QR can increase the average brightness of the road, which mainly depends on the shape and shape of the road. If the road has an intermediate isolation belt, both sides of the lamp holder is provided with a lighting device
The length of the suspension of QR should be increased when the intermediate isolation tape is used. If there is no intermediate isolation belt in the road, and when the motor lane and the non motor vehicle lane have green isolation belt, the lamp post is arranged on the green isolation belt on both sides of the road (two)
Side layout), non motor vehicle
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