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Characteristics and standard analysis of LED lamps

Chen Chaozhong, Li Weijun,, China National Quality Supervision and inspection center of quality supervision, inspection and testing technology, Shanghai

National electric light source quality supervision and Inspection Center (Shanghai)

Shanghai times Lighting Electric Appliance Testing Co., Ltd. National Lighting Electrical Equipment Standardization Technical Committee Technical Committee

Lighting Institute of China Specialized Committee Shanghai 200233

Abstract: This article from the LED lamp, lamp and its status as the entrance, based on LED lights, lamps and lanterns on the definition, analyzes the characteristics of LED lamps and the existing problems, and compared with the traditional lamp, performance evaluation and design aspects, according to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the American Energy Star (EnergyStar), IESNA (IESNA) were introduced in the publication of publications of LED lighting related standards in China and the relevant national standard LED lamps.

Abstract: Based on the LED lamp and LED luminaire definition, this paper first takes LED lamp, LED luminarie and its status quo as the breakthrough point to analysis the characteristics and current existing problems of LED luminaries. In addition, LED luminaire and traditional lighting luminaire are compared on performance, evaluation and lighting system design. At the same time, IEC EnergyStar, IESNA, and corresponding national standards for LED luminaries are summarized and introduced.

Keywords: LED lamp LED lamp color difference life standard

Keywords: LED lamp; LED luminaire; Color difference; lifetime; standard

LED into the field of lighting, led to a new revolution in the field of lighting technology. Due to the different shape, number, size of the LED LED structure can be in different ways, different combinations of LED replacement lamps can be different, in the field of lighting the LED lighting products of every kind of (for example: LED LED decorative lamps, road lamps, LED lighting, LED lamps, LED embedded lamps, tunnel LED traffic signal lamp and lamp etc.) and traditional light source alternatives (such as: LED, MR16, PAR to replace incandescent lamp, lamp tube fluorescent lamp T8/T12 etc.). With the rapid development of LED technology and the people to the pursuit of visual sensory lighting to further improve, people on the LED lighting design and performance requirements are more specific, which put forward higher requirements for lighting manufacturers and designers of lighting products.

LED semiconductor solid-state lighting is developed recently in recent years the industry of lighting terminal product designers and lamp manufacturing personnel, not only need to master the dynamic knowledge, domestic and international standards of traditional lighting industry, familiar with and understand the knowledge they need LED devices, especially to accurately grasp the LED lamp, as well as to define the difference with the traditional lighting lamps the performance of lamps.

As the semiconductor industry and lighting industry belong to different industries and at present to LED semiconductor solid-state lighting (SSL) lack of enough support, at this stage of the domestic LED lighting products in the product performance of dragons and fishes jumbled together, the manufacturer claims often with actual results far, color quality, life prediction is even more exaggerated, cultivate the Chinese LED lighting industry development and consumer confidence are unfavorable.

This article from the LED lamp, lamp and its status as the entrance, based on LED lights, lamps and lanterns on the definition, analyzes the characteristics of LED lamps and the existing problems, and compared with the traditional lamp, performance evaluation and design aspects, at the same time for our country and the international standard LED lamps are introduced. It should be combined with the technical elements, LED lamps to observe and track the changes and development of the standard.

A, LED lamps, lamps and related definitions

1, LED lamp

LED package (LED package): a component of one or more LED wafers, including solder wire connectors or other types of electrical connections, with optical, thermal, mechanical and electrical interfaces. The device does not include a power supply and a standard lamp holder. The device can not be directly connected with the branch circuit.

The -LED array module (LED array or or module): the LED package on a printed circuit board or substrate or wafer components (components), possibly with additional optical elements, thermal, mechanical and electrical interface is intended to be connected to the load side LED driver. The device does not contain a power supply and a standard lamp holder. The device can not be directly connected with the branch circuit.

LED light engine (LED light Engine): contains LED package (component) or LED array (module), LED drive, as well as other photometric, thermal, mechanical and electrical components of the overall portfolio. The device is directly connected to the branch circuit through a conventional connector matched with the LED lamp, and the LED lamp is designed without using a standard lamp holder.

Non integral LED lamps (LED lamp, non-integrated): components containing LED arrays (modules) or LED packages (components) and standard lamp caps. The device is intended to be connected to the LED driver of the lamp through a standard lamp holder. The device can not be directly connected with the branch circuit.

Integral LED lamp (LED lamp, integrated): LED package (component) or LED array (module), LED drive, standard lamp holder and other photometric, thermal, mechanical and electrical components of the overall portfolio. The device is intended to be directly connected with the branch circuit through a standardized lamp holder.

2, LED lamps

-LED (LED luminaire) is a lamp comprises a light emitting element LED and matching drive based on optical components, and fixing and protecting the light-emitting element components, and instruments connected to the branch circuit components complete lighting apparatus. LED based light emitting devices may be in the form of LED packaging (components), LED array (module), LED light engine or LED light. LED lamps intended to connect directly to the branch circuit.

- hybrid LED lamps (Hybrid LED luminaire): equipped with LED based light emitting devices and other types of light sources such as incandescent or fluorescent lamps.

3, LED drive

LED driver (LED driver): a device that contains a power supply and a LED control circuit for the purpose of making the LED package (element), or LED array (module) or LED light work.

The definition and interpretation of LED provides a basis for us to distinguish LED lamps and LED lamps, LED lamps and LED light source in general the main difference is whether directly connected to the branch circuit, the LED lamp is a kind of design and does not intend to branch circuit directly connected products, and the LED lamps are designed to be directly connected to the branch circuit products.

LED light engine also belongs to the LED lamp, but its characteristics between LED lamps and integral LED lamps, difference and integral LED lamp is a lamp, and it contains the connector, not the standard lamp holder, and the difference with the LED lamp is not directly connected to the branch circuit and it. Due to the setting of the light distribution function and the standard connector, LED light engine can improve the maintainability of some LED lamps.

Two, the difference between LED lamps and traditional light sources

At present, there are many differences in the performance, evaluation and design of LED lamps and traditional light sources.

1, in the performance evaluation of LED lamps

Evaluation of color space uniformity in a to evaluate the color difference of different observation angles in the presence of LED lamps.

The characteristics of single traditional light source is different, LED lamp LED lamp is composed of a plurality of luminous bodies and light, existence of color difference between light LED lamps, the spatial distribution of need to use the color space uniformity evaluation to evaluate the LED light color.

B life expectancy to evaluate the durability of LED lamps.

Measurement and evaluation of life performance of traditional light sources have been standardized, and are interchangeable, so the traditional lamp life of the light source can meet the requirements by replacing the damaged light source, and a control device according to the 10 years of life designed lamps, it is generally not the traditional life of the light source lamp evaluation. Life with the LED LED lamp, LED lamp driver and life itself to provide to the LED environment and many other factors, and the LED lamp has many forms, except with a standard LED lamp, LED lamp has no other interchangeability, so different to the LED lamp, the life only through life assessment to determine. In the evaluation of LED lamp life, not only to claim the light flux to maintain life (L X), but also claimed that the efficiency (F X).

C lamp can be used to evaluate the proportion of luminous flux parameters and different traditional lamps. Evaluation of luminaire efficiency for conventional lighting fixtures, and evaluation of light efficiency of LED lamps.

D) unlike traditional lighting sources for photometric test alone, photometric measurements can be used when the relative method, LED light source is very sensitive to temperature, not suitable for the LED light source from the lamp to separate the individual measurements and photometric measurements should be on the whole lamp photometric test by absolute method.

2, in the design of LED lamps LED lamps in the optical system design, electrical accessories, cooling measures and structural design and other aspects of the traditional light source has obvious difference.

A) optical system

The optical system is the soul of the lamp, according to the characteristics of the selected light source, the optical system is designed. The optical system of traditional light source is composed of light source, lamp holder, reflector and transparent cover. Because some LED units have the photometric characteristics of 2 pi luminescence, the photometric system of lamps is very different from that of traditional light sources. Specific features are as follows:

(1) LED lighting optical system is composed of LED chip and the lens composed of LED array and LED array module, sometimes arranged on the aluminum substrate on the flat substrate, may also be raised or sunken on the lamp, with or without the use of a transparent cover. According to the lighting requirements, lighting manufacturers will be a combination of multiple LED units or dozens of LED units on the substrate, attention should be paid to control the color consistency of the LED unit after the combination, the color uniformity of LED lamps.

(2) due to the very sensitive photoelectric characteristics of LED changes of PN junction temperature; packaging resin deteriorate rapidly under high temperature and strong light radiation; long-term will make the phosphor light induced conversion rate decreased gradually, and lead to the chromaticity shift. LED lamp life evaluation is usually under the condition of limiting the color deviation, the assessment of LED lamp lumen maintenance rate.

B) electrical parts

LED drive power is the key factor of the performance of the LED lamp, and it is also one of the key factors for the design or selection of lamps. Electrical design of LED lamps should be considered in order to use the LED lamp installation site characteristics and the number of lamps and lamp, and the position in the grid to consider electrical safety, constant current drive, immunity and EMI, choosing or designing appropriate LED driving power supply.

Since the LED is 2V ~ 3V low voltage constant current source driver, so unlike ordinary incandescent bulbs can be directly connected to the 220V AC power, power supply and control circuit must be designed to drive LED. In addition, the electrical connection of the LED module is also an important part of the electrical system of the LED lamps and lanterns, which should be fully taken into account, and the standard connectors, adequate insulation and electric shock protection should be adopted.

C) cooling measures

The same as the traditional light source, LED lamps are also hot, LED lamp heat from the loss of LED photoelectric conversion and LED drive power supply. With the traditional electric light source luminous principle (incandescent lamp and the fluorescent lamp and so on)


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